Side Effects. No studies have specifically investigated the effect of insulin use by nondiabetics for the purpose of increasing muscle mass. However, bodybuilders have used short-acting insulin with high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets to promote muscle growth, and a few case studies have reported negative consequences (Evans & Lynch 2003; Konrad et al. 1998; Dawson & Harrison 1997; Reverter et al. 1994). The primary side effect of insulin use by nondiabetics is hypoglycemia. While this condition is preventable and treatable, most individuals use insulin in secrecy and are discovered only when they are found by friends or family in a state of unconsciousness induced by hypoglycemia. Coma, convulsions and death have been reported in some cases (Evans & Lynch 2003; Konrad et al. 1998; Dawson & Harrison 1997; Reverter et al. 1994).