Various lesions can cause acute or chronic pain in the abdominal wall. Localized tenderness often occurs in surgical scars several months after surgery because of the formation of neuromas. Endometriosis tends to recur in surgical scars. 7 , 8 Hematomas of the abdominal wall or rectus sheath can occur spontaneously or after surgery, trauma or pregnancy. 9 , 10 Desmoid tumors can also cause chronic abdominal pain. 11 Athletes have been found to develop abdominal wall pain related to myofascial tears or idiopathic intra-abdominal adhesions. 12 , 13
Approximately 90% of cases are associated with a cancerous tumor that is compressing the superior vena cava,  such as bronchogenic carcinoma including small cell and non-small cell lung carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma , lymphoblastic lymphomas, pre- T-cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (rare), and other acute leukemias.  Syphilis and tuberculosis have also been known to cause superior vena cava syndrome.  SVCS can be caused by invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis in the vein itself, although this latter is less common (approximately 35% due to the use of intravascular devices).